A ZOPA exists if there is a horse between the price of booking each part (below). A negative trading area is when there is no overlap. With a negative bargaining area, both parties can (and should) leave. Understanding ZOPA is essential for a successful negotiation, but negotiators must first know their BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement) or „from positions”.  To determine whether there is a ZOPA, both parties must consider each other`s interests and values. This should be done at the early start of negotiations and should be adapted if more information is learned. The size of the ZOPA is also essential. If a broad APA is given, the parties could use strategies and tactics to influence distribution within the ZOPA. If the parties have a small ZOPA, the difficulty is to find pleasant conditions. As the master`s course in negotiation has shown, interaction in a negotiation is to shape the perception of ZOPA through conviction and other tactical measures, as this will lead to an agreement. Do you want to deepen your understanding of the dynamics of the negotiations? Discover our eight-week online Negotiation Mastery course and learn how to develop the skills and techniques needed to close deals and enter into effective agreements.
The nature of ZOPA depends on the nature of the negotiations.  In a (competitive) negotiation where participants try to share a „solid cake,” it is more difficult to find solutions acceptable to both parties because both parties want to claim the cake as much as possible. Distribution negotiations on a single topic tend to be zero sums — there is a winner and a loser. There is no overlap between the parties; Therefore, no mutually beneficial agreement is possible. The best thing to do – sometimes – is to split the desired result in half. Have you ever wondered what it takes to prepare effectively for the success of the negotiations? Understanding the Area of Agreement of Possibles (ZOPA) is essential for the result to be successful. Where there is a ZOPA, an agreement is usually reached. A negotiator should always begin to review the ZOPA of both parties during the earliest phase of his preparations and to constantly refine and adjust these figures during the process.
For all interest, there are often several possible solutions that could satisfy it.  When both parties know their ACCORDS and leave their positions, the parties should be able to communicate, evaluate the proposed agreements and, finally, identify the ZOPA. However, parties often do not know their own BATNA and even less know the BATNA on the other side. Often, the parties can pretend to have a better alternative than they really do, because the right alternatives usually lead to more power in negotiations. This is explained in more detail in the BATN trial. However, the result of such deception could be the obvious absence of ZOPA – and therefore a failure of negotiation when there was actually a ZOPA. Common uncertainties may also affect the parties` ability to assess potential agreements, as the parties may be unrealistic or pessimistic about the possibility of reaching an agreement or the value of other options.  If the negotiating parties are unable to reach the ZOPA, they are in a negative negotiating area.